ドイツのグリッドに不安定性 by SPIEGEL

[ Catalina Schröder - "Energy Revolution Hiccups -- Grid Instability Has Industry Scrambling for Solutions" (2012/08/16) on Spiegel ]

Sudden fluctuations in Germany's power grid are causing major damage to a number of industrial companies. While many of them have responded by getting their own power generators and regulators to help minimize the risks, they warn that companies might be forced to leave if the government doesn't deal with the issues fast.


It was 3 a.m. on a Wednesday when the machines suddenly ground to a halt at Hydro Aluminium in Hamburg. The rolling mill's highly sensitive monitor stopped production so abruptly that the aluminum belts snagged. They hit the machines and destroyed a piece of the mill. The reason: The voltage off the electricity grid weakened for just a millisecond.

Workers had to free half-finished aluminum rolls from the machines, and several hours passed before they could be restarted. The damage to the machines cost some €10,000 ($12,300).
In the following three weeks, the voltage weakened at the Hamburg factory two more times, each time for a fraction of second. Since the machines were on a production break both times, there was no damage. Still, the company invested €150,000 to set up its own emergency power supply, using batteries, to protect itself from future damages.

"It could have affected us again in the middle of production and even led to a fire," said plant manager Axel Brand. "That would have been really expensive."

ハンブルクのHydro Aluminiumで機械が停止したのは、ある水曜の午前3時のことだった。圧延機の高感度モニタが生産を突如として停止させ、アルミニウムのベルトが絡まった。これが機械にあたり、工場の一部を破壊した。この原因はほんのミリ秒の間、電力グリッドの電圧が降下したことだった。


「次は稼働中に起きるかもしれず、場合のよっては火災になるかもしれない。そうなれば、もっと高くつく」と工場管理者Axel Brandは述べた。

Ambitious Goals 野心的な目標

At other industrial companies, executives at the highest levels are also thinking about freeing themselves from Germany's electricity grid to cushion the consequences of the country's transition to renewable energy.

Likewise, as more and more companies with sensitive control systems are securing production through batteries and generators, the companies that manufacture them are benefiting. "You can hardly find a company that isn't worrying about its power supply," said Joachim Pfeiffer, a parliamentarian and economic policy spokesman for the governing center-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU).

Behind this worry stands the transition to renewable energy laid out by Chancellor Angela Merkel last year in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Though the transition has been sluggish so far, Merkel set the ambitious goals of boosting renewable energy to 35 percent of total power consumption by 2020 and 80 percent by 2050 while phasing out all of Germany's nuclear power reactors by 2022.

The problem is that wind and solar farms just don't deliver the same amount of continuous electricity compared with nuclear and gas-fired power plants. To match traditional energy sources, grid operators must be able to exactly predict how strong the wind will blow or the sun will shine.

But such an exact prediction is difficult. Even when grid operators are off by just a few percentage points, voltage in the grid slackens. That has no affect on normal household appliances, such as vacuum cleaners and coffee machines. But for high-performance computers, for example, outages lasting even just a millisecond can quickly trigger system failures.

他の工業会社では、経営陣が、ドイツの再生可能エネルギーへの転換の影響を緩和するために、ドイツのグリッドからの離脱を考えている。同様に、センシティブな制御システムを持つ多くの企業が、バッテリーや自家発電で自社生産設備を守ろうとしている。そして、それらを生産している企業を儲けさせている。「電源供給に懸念を持っていない企業などないだろう」と、中道右派のキリスト教民主同盟(CDU)の経済政策の広報担当で、連邦議員であるJoachim Pfeifferは述べた。

この懸念の背景には、Angela Merkelが福島原発事故により昨年に提示した再生可能エネルギーへの転換がある。転換は進んでいないが、Merkel首相は2022年までに全原発を段階駅に廃止し、2020年までに全エネルギー消費の35%を再生可能エネルギーにし、2050年にはそれを80%にするというう野心的な目標を設定している。



Christopher Booker on 風力発電

ドイツでのグリッド不安定に関連して、TelegraphのChristopher Booker がこんなこと を書いている。

On Friday, September 14, just before 10am, Britain’s 3,500 wind turbines broke all records by briefly supplying just over four gigawatts (GW) of electricity to the national grid. Three hours later, in Germany, that country’s 23,000 wind turbines and millions of solar panels similarly achieved an unprecedented output of 31GW. But the responses to these events in the two countries could not have been in starker contrast.


In Britain, the wind industry proclaimed a triumph. Maria McCaffery, the CEO of RenewableUK, crowed that “this record high shows that wind energy is providing a reliable, secure supply of electricity to an ever-growing number of British homes and businesses” and that “this bountiful free resource will help drive down energy bills”. But in Germany, the news was greeted with dismay, for reasons which merit serious attention here in Britain.

Germany is way ahead of us on the very path our politicians want us to follow – and the problems it has encountered as a result are big news there. In fact, Germany is being horribly caught out by precisely the same delusion about renewable energy that our own politicians have fallen for. Like all enthusiasts for “free, clean, renewable electricity”, they overlook the fatal implications of the fact that wind speeds and sunlight constantly vary. They are taken in by the wind industry’s trick of vastly exaggerating the usefulness of wind farms by talking in terms of their “capacity”, hiding the fact that their actual output will waver between 100 per cent of capacity and zero. In Britain it averages around 25 per cent; in Germany it is lower, just 17 per cent.

The more a country depends on such sources of energy, the more there will arise – as Germany is discovering – two massive technical problems. One is that it becomes incredibly difficult to maintain a consistent supply of power to the grid, when that wildly fluctuating renewable output has to be balanced by input from conventional power stations. The other is that, to keep that back-up constantly available can require fossil-fuel power plants to run much of the time very inefficiently and expensively (incidentally chucking out so much more “carbon” than normal that it negates any supposed CO2 savings from the wind).

Both these problems have come home to roost in Germany in a big way, because it has gone more aggressively down the renewables route than any other country in the world. Having poured hundreds of billions of euros in subsidies into wind and solar power, making its electricity bills almost the highest in Europe, the picture that Germany presents is, on paper, almost everything the most rabid greenie could want. Last year, its wind turbines already had 29GW of capacity, equivalent to a quarter of Germany’s average electricity demand. But because these turbines are even less efficient than our own, their actual output averaged only 5GW, and most of the rest had to come from grown-up power stations, ready to supply up to 29GW at any time and then switch off as the wind picked up again.

英国では、風力産業は勝利を宣言した。RenewableUKのCEOであるMaria McCafferyは「この新記録は、風力エネルギーが英国の家庭や企業の増え続ける需要に、信頼性の高い、安全な電力を供給しており、豊富な無料の資源がエネルギー支出削減に貢献することを示している」と述べた。しかし、ドイツでは、このニュースは、英国で重大な注意に値する理由で、落胆をもって迎えられた。




Now the problem for the German grid has become even worse. Thanks to a flood of subsidies unleashed by Angela Merkel’s government, renewable capacity has risen still further (solar, for instance, by 43 per cent). This makes it so difficult to keep the grid balanced that it is permanently at risk of power failures. (When the power to one Hamburg aluminium factory failed recently, for only a fraction of a second, it shut down the plant, causing serious damage.) Energy-intensive industries are having to install their own generators, or are looking to leave Germany altogether.

In fact, a mighty battle is now developing in Germany between green fantasists and practical realists. Because renewable energy must by law have priority in supplying the grid, the owners of conventional power stations, finding they have to run plants unprofitably, are so angry that they are threatening to close many of them down. The government response, astonishingly, has been to propose a new law forcing them to continue running their plants at a loss.

Meanwhile, firms such as RWE and E.on are going flat out to build 16 new coal-fired and 15 new gas-fired power stations by 2020, with a combined output equivalent to some 38 per cent of Germany’s electricity needs. None of these will be required to have “carbon capture and storage” (CCS), which is just an empty pipedream. This makes nonsense of any pretence that Germany will meet its EU target for reducing CO2 emissions (and Mrs Merkel’s equally fanciful goal of producing 35 per cent of electricity from renewables).

In brief, Germany’s renewables drive is turning out to be a disaster. This should particularly concern us because our Government, with its plan to build 30,000 turbines, to meet our EU target of sourcing 32 per cent of our electricity from renewables by 2020, is hell-bent on the same path. But our own “big six” electricity companies, including RWE and E.on, are told that they cannot build any replacements for our coal-fired stations (many soon to be closed under EU rules) which last week were supplying more than 40 per cent of our power – unless they are fitted with that make-believe CCS....

今やドイツのグリッドの問題はさらに悪化している。Angela Merkel政権による補助金の洪水のおかげで、再生可能エネルギー容量はさらに増大している(たとえば、太陽光発電は41%増大した)。これによって1グリッドのバランス維持は困難になり、常に停電のリスクをかかえるようになった。(Hamburgアルミニウム工場への電力供給が、ほんの1秒以下の時間、不安定になり、工場は停止し、重大な被害を受けた。)エネルギーを大量に消費する産業は、自家発電を設置したり、ドイツからの撤退を検討したりしている。




[ Christopher Booker - "Germany's wind power chaos should be a warning to the UK" (2012/09/22) on Telegraph ]

確かに、発電所におけるCCSはデモンストレーションプロジェクトが始まった段階であり、EU CCS demonstration projectは早いものでも2015年に実証試験開始である。すぐの話ではない。


  • 最終更新:2012-10-02 02:53:29